Tag Archives: garbage disposal

Plumbing Does Not Have To Be Hard, Here is Some Advice That Will Make It Seem Easy.

TIP! Water hammer problems, pipe noise due to water hitting the back of the pipe, can be easily repaired. Anchoring exposed pipes will decrease the amount of noise your plumbing system makes.

The topic of plumbing can be very stressful for a homeowner who isn’t familiar with plumbing repairs. You often have to wait for a plumber to make a house call, and you may end up paying a lot for a repair you could have made on your own. Keep reading to discover ways to make plumbing repairs and fixes that much easier!

Septic Tank

TIP! Wait to give compensation to a plumber until they are finished with their work. You may have to pay a portion of the cost before the plumber works on the job, but you should never have to pay in full until after everything has been correctly finished.

To maintain a clean, well-functioning septic tank, it is recommended that you clean it out once every five years. Deposit and debris build up in your tank can result in major problems. It will cost some to have the septic tank pumped, but it would cost much more to have it cleaned, repaired or replaced due to sewage back up.

TIP! Avoid bleach tablets, blue toilet deodorizers or the other odor removers inside your toilet. Both of these may help to eliminate odors from your toilet, but it can also damage the rubber parts of your toilet, causing it to not function probably, or even to break down completely.

You can easily see if there are any serious damages caused by leaks by checking if the floor is soft around toilets. Another great way to check is to actually sit on the toilet and move in a rocking motion, going back and forth from right to left to see how much give you feel. You could save yourself money but noticing that problem sooner, rather than later.

TIP! To increase the useful life of your garbage disposal, clean it out regularly. By regularly using a mixture of dish soap, cherry pits and citrus rinds, you can ensure that your disposal runs smoothly and smells as fresh as one that is brand new.

Schedule all the plumbing work at one time. By doing so, you can save up enough money to pay for the repairs. You can save money by only paying a single service call fee instead of ending up with multiple hours being billed from multiple visits.

TIP! Installing more efficient shower heads can save you tons of money on your energy bill. A lot of the hot water that we use is used when we shower.

You should always put plenty of cold water through your garbage disposal while it is running. The blades will stay sharper, and the overall disposal process will run smoother. Running hot water down the drain while you are using the garbage disposal can cause the drain to clog from any grease that is in there liquefying.

TIP! To lower the chance that you will have issues with your toilet, do not approach it like it’s a trash can. You should never flush cotton balls, sanitary pads, tissues, paper towels, diapers, or certain other materials, because these things don’t dissolve and could clog up your toilet.

As you can see, plumbing problems don’t have to be so difficult. If you can solve the problem yourself, you can save time waiting for a plumber, as well as saving a whole lot of money. Try applying what you’ve learned from this article next time you have a plumbing problem!

Learn How To Solve Plumbing Problems

TIP! Learning the basics is important with plumbing problems, including how to use the common plumbing tools. Make sure you read all the directions and manuals, while also taking advantage of online resources and the library to help you with your projects.

When you have to do your own plumbing jobs, you may not know which tools, equipment, regulations or instructions you may need to get started. Read the tips contained in this article so that you will have the knowledge to become an excellent plumber.

TIP! While various toilet tablets and odor removers may be tempting, it’s best not to use them in your toilet. These products may well remove odors, but they have the side effect of damaging the rubber in your toilet, which can prevent your toilet from functioning correctly.

If you discover a frozen water pipe, turn on a nearby faucet so that thawed ice has a place to go. This will help relieve pressure in pipes to prevent them from bursting, which may prevent bigger damage for your home.

TIP! If you find you are having an issue with the garbage disposal, do not put your bare hands in the disposal. Garbage disposals can be dangerous, even when they are turned off.

Odor removers such as bleach toilets are not good for your plumbing system. These tablets have chemicals that can damage rubber parts that are essential to the proper functioning of your toilet.

Garbage Disposal

TIP! Iron will cause orange or pink stains in and on your fixtures if you have a well. To get rid of this problem, you can either use a commercial product to soften the water, or have a contractor come to your home and do the work for you.

Never try to fix a garbage disposal by putting your hand down into it. Your garbage disposal is a dangerous device, even when turned off. Look for a diagram of the garbage disposal you have on the Internet.

TIP! Run lots of cold water whenever you use your garbage disposal. The helps sharpen the blades and clears out the drain mechanism.

If your home has well water and you start seeing orange or pink stains, that is from iron in your water supply. You can use water softener that you buy at the store to remedy this situation, or you can have a professional do it for you.

TIP! Don’t use your toilet as a trash can in order to avoid problems. Under no circumstances flush cotton balls or swabs, paper towels, diapers, sanitary pads or other materials that will not dissolve.

To maintain your garbage disposal and avoid malfunction, you should regularly clean it. You can use dish soap, lemon peels, and cherry pits to get your garbage disposal clean and fresh and running well.

TIP! If you have a shower head that needs replacing, be sure to get one that is good quality. Some people think that one shower head is like any other, so decide on price alone.

Each month, treat your drains by pouring one cup of baking soda down it, and then follow that with a cup of regular white vinegar. This will cause the vigorous bubbling you may remember from the “volcano” in a grade school science project, so be sure to close the drain with a stopper. Flush it with boiling water after a few minutes. Doing this periodically should keep your pipes free of hair and soap scum.

TIP! Enzyme-based cleaners are the best bet for unclogging stubborn clogged pipes. Enzyme based cleaners work by using natural bacteria that turns the sludge clogged in your pipes into a liquid, allowing it to flow down the drain with ease.

As you may have noticed from this article, plumbing is not so hard to do! You need to learn the basics, however. Just focus and start somewhere, this is all it takes, when you do your research apply common sense into the mix and you should have no problem tackling an easy job.

Plumbing Problems Clogging Up Your Time? Help Is Here!

TIP! Have your septic tank cleaned every five years to keep it in prime condition. This will stop any buildup in your septic tank and prevent any horrible issues.

Do you know if your plumbing system is running good? Also, like most people, you probably want to learn to be a little more capable of handling basic plumbing problems in your house or apartment. If this is for you, you have found the right information! The following article has advice for making plumbing repairs efficiently.

TIP! If your toilet will not flush, and there is very little water in the basin, try to fix the issue by dumping warm water in the bowl from around your waist line. Do this every time the water level gets too low.

Keep your plumbing flowing by maintaining a temperature above 32 degrees and wrapping up any exposed pipe works. Your plumbing can freeze if the air around it is below 32 degrees. It can take a while for the pipes to thaw, which means you will not be able to run water for quite some time. In the worst case, the pipes would burst, and you would be stuck with costly repairs and a very messy cleanup procedure.

TIP! Do not attempt fixing your garbage disposal with bare hands. Even when the garbage disposal is turned off they can be dangerous.

Do not pay anything until the problem is fixed. Sometimes plumbers will request a cash deposit before any work can commence; however, you avoid paying the total bill until the whole job has been finished to your satisfaction. Agree with the plumber in advance on the job and payment.

TIP! Place a strainer on top of every drain so that you collect all debris that has the ability to clog the drain. The strainer in the kitchen sink should be cleaned each time you have large particles trapped in it.

Know your plumbing tools and exactly how to use them before you start on any plumbing repair. Use manuals and online sites to get informed before doing a plumbing project yourself. Plan properly prior to beginning any type of repair, because fixing a mistake can cost a lot of money.

Garbage Disposal

TIP! Regularly check your overflow holes to make sure they’re not clogged. The overflow holes are there to make sure the sink doesn’t overfill, which can become a problem if they are blocked.

If you discover a problem with the garbage disposal, don’t ever reach into it with your hands to attempt to fix it. Even when the garbage disposal is turned off they can be dangerous. Research on the Internet for diagrams, troubleshooters or FAQ’s about your disposal.

TIP! It is important to always run cold water while using your garbage disposal. Cold water keeps blades sharp and encourage a smoother disposal.

Now that you’ve read the entire article, you should be excited at the thought of doing your own repairs. This article has given you advice that will be efficient for your needs. If not, try something else until you are pleased with the results for your system.

Tough Plumbing Problems Made Easy With This Info

TIP! If you discover that a water pipe has frozen, find the tap closest to the pipe so when the thaw happens, the water has an exit point. As such, bursting can be halted, saving you from even more costly damages.

Contrary to popular belief, it isn’t all that difficult to handle a few plumbing tasks around the home. The right knowledge and equipment make it simpler, though. There is some handy advice here that will get you on the right track with your plumbing needs.

TIP! Knowing which tools to use and how you should use them is an important skill when it comes to plumbing. Read your manuals and books, either online or at the library, to teach yourself do it yourself plumbing.

If a pipe freezes, make sure you turn the closest faucet to allow the thawing water to exit. If there is too much pressure within the pipe, it may burst, causing other forms of damage in the home.

Garbage Disposal

TIP! Iron will cause orange or pink stains in and on your fixtures if you have a well. A water softener will take care of the issue.

If your garbage disposal is having problems, don’t give in to the desire to attempt a fix by reaching down into the disposal. Even when they are turned off, disposals can be very dangerous. Locate a diagram of the garbage disposal, or some sort of troubleshooter, online.

TIP! If you want to make sure your garbage disposal is going to be around as long as the house it is inside of, make sure you clean it often. Keep your garbage disposal fresh and running by using dish soap, cherry pits and lemon rinds regularly.

If you want to look for floor damage around your toilet, just check the flooring for softness. Sit on your toilet and sway across both feet to feel if there are any spots less firm than the others. You could save yourself money but noticing that problem sooner, rather than later.

TIP! You can drastically reduce your utility bills with the installation of shower heads designed for better efficiency. Showers and baths are responsible for the bulk of your hot water usage.

Give all drains strainers to gather particulate matter that can clog pipes. Kitchen sink strainers should be cleaned every time they collect large food particles. Clean out the bathtup strainer every few days before it becomes clogged.

TIP! Don’t use your toilet as a wastebasket to keep potential problems to a minimum. Do not flush things like paper towels, sanitary pads, tissues, diapers, cotton balls or anything else that might cause the toilet to get clogged.

If your home has well water and you start seeing orange or pink stains, that is from iron in your water supply. This is fixed by using water softener, which can be bought at a store, or you can have someone come to your home and fix it.

TIP! Enzyme-based cleaners are the best bet for unclogging stubborn clogged pipes. These natural bacteria cleaners turn sludge into liquid, and then remove it from the pipes.

As was discussed at the beginning of the article, while plumbing can be an extremely difficult chore for anyone to complete, it becomes significantly easier if you have the right advice and information. Use the advice from this article, and you’ll be on your way to doing your own plumbing.

It Is A Good Idea To Learn About Plumbing

TIP! Plumbing that constantly squeaks, pounds, and emits other noises is irritating but, fortunately, the problem is often easily fixed. Exposed pipes need to be anchored.

In dealing with plumbing issues, be mindful that a number of complications can arise. Some of these things may be simple to fix, but others may be more difficult. Regardless of the difficulty, a good amount of plumbing knowledge is needed to ensure that repairs are done correctly and efficiently.

TIP! Pump your septic tank every five years to keep it working well. Having it cleaned out prevents the sediment from accumulating in the septic tank and creating a sewage backup in your house or triggering the meltdown of the entire septic system.

To prevent your frozen pipes from bursting, leave the nearest faucet on to give the water a way to escape. This helps decrease any pressure in order to prevent burst pipes. A burst pipe can create damage that is expensive to repair.

TIP! Avoid paying the plumber until he finishes the job. You might have to put money down initially before the plumber begins the job.

Get the appropriate tools, and know exactly how to use them before you start working on your plumbing. Study before any do it yourself project by reading any relevant manuals, going online and even making trips to your local public library. Plan properly prior to beginning any type of repair, because fixing a mistake can cost a lot of money.

Garbage Disposal

TIP! Do not attempt fixing your garbage disposal with bare hands. Even when in the off position, garbage disposals are dangerous.

Do not attempt to fix your garbage disposal by reaching in with your hands. Garbage disposals always pose a possible threat, even when powered off or non-working all together. Troubleshooting techniques and schematics of your garbage disposal are available on the Internet.

TIP! Keep your garbage disposal clean and it will last longer. In order to keep it clean, you can use a mixture of dish soap, cherry pits and lemon rinds which will keep the disposal running smooth and smelling fresh.

Check your fixtures to ensure the overflow holes are clear of debris and mineral build-up. Overflow holes drain sink that fill too full and may go unnoticed until they are needed. Clear the overflow holes periodically when you are doing your periodic checks for other problems and things that need to be repaired.

TIP! Ensure your overflow holes aren’t clogged up. These holes come into use if the skin overflows.

Like this article said, there are a lot of things that can happen to your plumbing. These issues can be small, or they can be big. If you use the tips that were given to you in the article you just read, you will learn that it doesn’t have to stress you out to deal with these issues.

Looking For Some Plumbing Advice? Look At This

TIP! If a pipe freezes, make sure you turn the closest faucet to allow the thawing water to exit. This can relieve the pipe pressure that could cause bursting and further home damage.

Contrary to popular belief, it isn’t all that difficult to handle a few plumbing tasks around the home. The right knowledge and equipment make it simpler, though. The following article has advice that will assist you with plumbing repairs.

TIP! Wait until a job is done before you pay for it. You may have to pay a portion of the cost before the plumber works on the job, but you should never have to pay in full until after everything has been correctly finished.

If you have pipes that sound as if they’re squeaking or hammering, it’s an easy fix. You must anchor any type of exposed pipe. You may need the assistance of a professional in the case that the pipes are contained within a floor or ceiling.

TIP! Do not attempt to fix your garbage disposal by reaching in with your hands. Garbage disposals can be dangerous, even if they are powered off.

In order to prevent any pipes within your home from freezing, you should never let the home temperature get below freezing. Always insulate pipes exposed to elements. If ambient temperature surrounding pipes goes below freezing, pipes can freeze as well. In the very least, you could lose running water inside while waiting for the pipes to unfreeze. However, they might burst, which will cause an enormous mess and repair bill.

TIP! Orange or pink discoloration on your bathroom fixtures is a solid indication that your water contains too much iron. A water softener can cure this problem and can be installed by you, or you may opt to have a professional to come and install it for you.

Knowing your tools and how to use them can help greatly in your plumbing experience. You should read the manual with any new tool you purchase. If you don’t have the manual, look online or at your local library for more information. You should do the same amount of research on the steps required for your project. Have everything you need by way of tools and information before you attempt a repair on your own.

Garbage Disposal

TIP! By installing water-conserving shower heads in your bathrooms, you can save money on your monthly water bill. Most of our hot water is used in the shower.

It is important to clean your garbage disposal often to keep it functioning for many years. By incorporating a regular cleaning routine, your garbage disposal can stay running smoothly. One way to clean your disposal is to run dish detergent and lemon rinds through your garbage disposal. As an added benefit, this technique will also eliminate any scents from your disposal.

TIP! Frozen pipes can lead to a large plumbing bill. Fortunately, it is usually relatively easy to prevent your pipes from freezing.

As was discussed at the beginning of the article, while plumbing can be an extremely difficult chore for anyone to complete, it becomes significantly easier if you have the right advice and information. Use the advice from this article, and you’ll be on your way to doing your own plumbing.

Plumbing Tips That Are A Big Help When You Really Need It

TIP! If a pipe freezes, make sure you turn the closest faucet to allow the thawing water to exit. This relieves the pressure contained in the pipe as it also prevents it from bursting, which would reduce the damage done to your house.

Water may be the source of all life, but it can also be a nemesis to the frustrated homeowner dealing with plumbing problems. Few issues, short of a natural disaster, can cause more damage to a house than a serious plumbing fault. Thankfully, owners of homes can take steps to avoid plumbing nightmares.

TIP! Pass on seemingly convenient cleaning products like bleach tablets and blue toilet tabs. Either kind of toilet tablet might break down obnoxious smells in your toilet, but they might also break down the rubber parts, resulting in malfunction.

Never pay for a plumbing job completely until they have finished the job. You may need to make a small down payment before the job has begun, but you never want to pay the entire amount until you are certain the job was completed to your satisfaction. You want to know the plumber has fulfilled all his requirements as promised in the agreement before he gets paid.

TIP! Don’t put fat, grease and other oils into the drain. These substances will create clogs after cooling in your drain.

Ensure that if something goes wrong in your garbage disposal that you resist any and all urges you have that might make you want to put your hands inside to fix a problem. Even when they are turned off, disposals can be very dangerous. Go online and search for sketch of your disposal, or a troubleshooter.

TIP! Keep your garbage disposal clean and it will last longer. You can prevent annoying odors and promote smooth operation by setting up a regular cleaning routine with lemon rinds, dish soap, and even cherry pits.

Use a drain strainer to prevent small particles from sliding down your drain and causing clogs. Whenever large particles become trapped in the strainer, remove them. Kitchen filters should be changed often, while bathtub filters can be changed as needed.

TIP! Make sure all the work on your plumbing is scheduled at one time. If a problem is minor, it can be wise to put off repair until you have more than one item to fix.

Keep grease, fat and oil out of your kitchen drain. Whenever they cool, they tend to harden and make clogs inside your drains. This is very true for garbage disposal, since fat will make the blades run less quickly and efficiently. Get rid of any fat or oils outside or in the garbage can.

TIP! If you are seeing water at the bottom of the dishwasher, most likely this is due to a faulty setup of the hose that leads from the kitchen sink. You must have the hose going uphill and then down to get rid of the water in the dishwater.

Being knowledgeable and prepared are the best ways to avoid plumbing issues. By learning more about plumbing, a homeowner can make the right decisions and reduce the chance of plumbing problems. Also, homeowners who dig up information about a problem beforehand are much more likely to solve the problem faster and easier.

Plumbing Problems Clogging Up Your Time? Help Is Here!

TIP! Your plumbing experience can go a lot smoother when you know your tools, as well as how to handle them properly. Make sure you read all the directions and manuals, while also taking advantage of online resources and the library to help you with your projects.

Now is the time to finally learn more about plumbing. You’ve considered it previously, but never took the time to do it. In any case, the article below will teach you a few different plumbing tips and tactics you can implement to solve everyday issues around your home.

Septic Tank

TIP! You should regularly check for water damage to your bathroom floor caused by your toilet in order to save money and further complications. Feel the floor around the toilet and check to see if the floor is soft, molded, chipping, etc.

To keep your septic tank in good working order, it is advisable to have it pumped out every five years. Regular maintenance will keep sediment from backing up inside of the tank. Sediment can not only cause the sewage in the tank to back up into your house, but it can cause the tank to fail completely. There is a cost to having a company pump out your septic tank. But, a serious backup can cost a lot more if it mean replacing the tank.

TIP! Use strainers on all drains to keep foreign objects and debris from clogging drains. Whenever large particles become trapped in the strainer, remove them.

Never reach into your garbage disposal with bare hands, even if there is a serious problem with it. Your garbage disposal is a dangerous device, even when turned off. It’s advised to obtain a diagram, possibly off of the Internet, that depicts your machine in accurate detail.

TIP! Check the overflow holes for clogs. Overflow holes drain water if a sink begins to overfill, so they need to be clear at all times.

Give all drains strainers to gather particulate matter that can clog pipes. Each time a filter is clogged, it should be cleaned. The bathtub’s strainers need to cleaned out on a regular basis.

TIP! To save a significant amount of cash on your energy bill, install energy-efficient shower heads in all of your showers. Showers and baths are responsible for the bulk of your hot water usage.

Avoid placing fat, grease, and other oils into your drain. When these oils cool, they become hard and create clogs. This is most true if you use a garbage disposal, as the fat causes the blades to function slower and they will become less efficient. Pour the grease and oil into a can to cool, put it in the trash.

TIP! Don’t throw trash down your toilet. Doing so can clog the drain and cause plumbing problems.

The advice you just read illustrates how having plumbing skills can make your life easier. You will be a great resource to your family and friends, and potentially save yourself quite a bit of money, as well. Hopefully you were able to understand all of the concepts covered here and found it to be interesting.

Highly Effective Plumbing Tips That Work Well

TIP! Never pay for a plumbing job completely until they have finished the job. Although you might be required to pay a down payment before the job is initiated, never pay the bill in full until you are certain that the job is completed to your satisfaction.

Trying to learn about plumbing can be difficult, but it can be learned through conducting the right research. Since you have now come across these tips, you can be more informed about plumbing so you can hone your skills and become a better plumber.

TIP! If a plumbing project is in your future, know two things: what tools you have, and how you are supposed to use them. Use manuals and online sites to get informed before doing a plumbing project yourself.

Avoiding frozen pies is easy if you ensure no area of your house ever falls below freezing and that any pipes which are exposed to such temperatures are protected with insulation. The pipes will be able to freeze if the temperature surrounding the pipes drops below freezing. In the very least, you could lose running water inside while waiting for the pipes to unfreeze. However, they could burst, and that could make a mess and result in a big repair bill.

TIP! If your toilet is clogged, the water level in the toilet is low, and a plunger is not doing the trick, you may be able to resolve the problem by pouring a bucket of warm water into the toilet from waist level or higher. Repeat this as many times as necessary until your clog is gone, and you can flush normally once again.

It is a advisable to have a septic tank pumped every five years to keep it in peak condition. Doing so avoids sediment build up, so that you don’t have any kind of septic system backup. The cost to have your tank pumped might be a little steep, but it sure beats the alternative of dealing with sewage in your home or on your property.

Garbage Disposal

TIP! It is very important to to use lots of cold water when running your garbage disposal. Using cold water not only preserves the sharpness of the blades, but also makes the disposal process itself smoother.

If you want your garbage disposal to have the same lifespan as your total home, clean it regularly. By regularly “cleaning” the disposal with lemon rinds, cherry pits and dish soap, you can make sure that your garbage disposal is running well and smelling so clean it could be new.

TIP! To save a significant amount of cash on your energy bill, install energy-efficient shower heads in all of your showers. Most of the hot water we use is in the shower.

If you have any plumbing work that needs to be done, schedule it all to be done concurrently. You may want to have each minor problem attended to as the occur, but having multiple repairs done at once allows you to save up for the cost. It also saves you money because a lot of plumbers charge by the hour–they cannot charge for multiple hours every trip if they only make one trip out.

TIP! If you have to replace any of your shower heads, make sure that the replacement is the best one you can afford. It’s common to think it’s fine to buy the one that is the cheapest.

Not as difficult as you thought, was it? Repairing basic plumbing issues will save you the money that would otherwise be spent on a professional plumber. Sometimes you just need a little clue as to where to begin with it so that you can jump right in. Hopefully, you have received that from the above tips.

Plumbing Tips To Utilize When Taking On A Project

TIP! If your pipes are making a racket, there is a simple way to quiet them down. Exposed pipes need to be anchored.

While there’s a lot to be learned when it comes to plumbing, all it takes is a little effort to learn what you need to through utilizing the teaching or research resources that work best for you. Hopefully this article will increase you knowledge about plumbing so you’ll have more confidence with home repairs.

TIP! Do not use harsh chemicals to clean or treat your toilet. While these tablets may be an easy way to clean your toilet and hide odors, they also contain chemicals that can break down the rubber fixtures in your toilet.

If you have pipes that make hammering and squeaking noises, you have one easy repair. What you will have to do is anchor any pipes that are exposed. For pipes that are situated inside walls, or the floor or ceiling, you should hire a professional.

TIP! You can resolve most toilet clogs yourself. Try a plunger first.

Do not pay anything until the problem is fixed. You may be required to put some money down before a job is started, but never pay the total cost until you know the job has been completed correctly. You want to know the plumber has fulfilled all his requirements as promised in the agreement before he gets paid.

TIP! Never reach into a garbage disposal that you think isn’t working. A garbage disposal can be dangerous, even when it is not on.

Do not attempt fixing your garbage disposal with bare hands. Garbage disposals can be very dangerous, so take caution when fixing it, even while it’s turned off. Research on the Internet for diagrams, troubleshooters or FAQ’s about your disposal.

TIP! Never put fat, grease, or oils into your drain. Oils will eventually harden and clog up your drain.

Place a strainer over the drains to collect anything that could clog and cause stoppage. You should clean your kitchen sink’s strainer every time there is a large particle that’s trapped in it. The ones in the bathroom can be cleaned out as needed.

TIP! If you have a well at your home and notice pink or orange stains around the drains of your tub or sink, this is most likely caused by an excess of iron in your water. To get rid of this problem, you can either use a commercial product to soften the water, or have a contractor come to your home and do the work for you.

Don’t put oil, grease or fat into your drain. Oils will eventually harden and clog up your drain. This can make your garbage disposal run slower. Dispose of your oils in a coffee can or other suitable container instead of your sink.

TIP! Flush your drain with a constant stream of cold water when operating your drain mounted disposal unit. Cold water helps the blades stay sharp and keeps the disposal running smoothly.

Wasn’t quite so nasty, was it? Plumbing has many different easy tips and tricks that anyone can learn. Sometimes, you just need to have a clue about where to start so you feel comfortable jumping in. Hopefully, the tips above have given you the information you need.